Recently, researchers from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in the United States in the international academic journal PNAS reported that a new study their progress, through their study of the natural characteristics of immune cells found for cancer immunotherapy the new method, it is possible to avoid some drawbacks of other methods.
This new method is triggered by changes within the tumor cell type key immune cells, causing the immune system to attack tumor immunity. This is the key immune cells Treg cells, usually these cells can hinder effector T cells to attack the tumor. The researchers found that eliminating one key protein within cells can make Treg Treg cells become unstable and subsequently become effector T cells involved in the immune attack on the tumors.
The authors said that the most important discoveries that transformed Treg cells into effector T cells in the inflammatory environment inside the tumor only, Treg cells in normal tissues remains on the local effector T cells has a limiting effect, can be avoided by healthy organs and tissues attack and injury.
Who led the study, Professor Harvey Cantor says: “There are many methods for immunotherapy, including the removal or blocking of Treg cell function, promote T cell effector T cell balance tilted but these methods have led to the autoimmune response. the risks that may result in effector T cells to attack malignant tissue while attacking healthy tissue. the key to this approach is that only the tumor inside Treg conversion will occur, and other body parts of Treg cells do not change. ”
Last year, the research team has published an article in the journal Science, they found that as long as the internal Treg cells express high levels of protein Helios, it is possible to maintain the immunosuppressive properties in the inflammatory environment, and the lack of protein can cause instability Helios Treg cells, resulting Treg cells into effector T cells.
In this study, the researchers constructed a mouse model Treg cell-specific gene deletion Helios, the melanoma cells or colon cancer cells were injected into mice, the mice formed tumors found speed was significantly slower than the control mice. They found that Treg cells in tumor tissue becomes very unstable, many Treg cells have become effector T cells.
Then they also investigated whether Helios protein synthesis inhibition of tumor Treg cells within the organization will have a similar effect. They use some combination of Treg cells in key receptor molecules detect antibodies, these antibodies cause Helios protein synthesis decreased. Then choose one within a relatively good effect of antibody injected into a mouse tumor tissue, and then the tumor tissue was analyzed to discover antibodies able to trigger the conversion Treg cells into effector T cells.
This study represents a new stage in the development of cancer immunotherapy. This new method they developed is not only capable of inducing effector T cells to attack the tumor tissue, but also can reduce the risk of damage to healthy tissue, the researchers hope to conduct clinical trials to further validate this approach.